1. CYPRUS. 4 2.1 Brief Information About Northern Cyprus.

1. INTRODUCTION

My senior year
graduation project is about the rehabilitation of walled city of Nicosia city
and contribution of this rehabilitation project on to the North Cyprus tourism
industry.

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First of all, I
will be focusing on to the brief history of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
and the main historical places in North Cyprus’s famous and ancient cities
including Nicosia, Kyrenia and Famagusta. After that, I will give some
information about the history of Nicosia city which is very important in terms
of cultural aspects for both the Northern and Southern parts of Cyprus. It is a
very unique city in the world that some part of it is belongs to the Southern
Cyprus which is under control of the country Greece and the other part of the
city is belongs to the Northern side which means to the Turkish republic of
northern Cyprus. Also there is a buffer zone, I will explain it in further part
of my project. After these precious informations, I will give some details
about a program that has been executed for preserving the Walled city. There is
a review report about this program, I took some help from this on-site report.
It was very helpful for my project.

Last but not
least, the last subject of my graduation project is the consequences and
effects of the renovation project of walled city Nicosia that had been held and
effects of this renovation program to the tourism of Northern Cyprus.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

1.
INTRODUCTION.. 1

2. TURKISH REPUBLIC OF
NORTHERN CYPRUS. 4

2.1 Brief Information
About Northern Cyprus. 4

2.2 Administrative
divisions. 5

2.3 Economy of Northern
Cyprus. 6

3. TOURISM IN NORTHERN
CYPRUS. 7

3.1 Arrivals by country. 8

3.2 Marina tourism.. 8

4. HISTORICAL PLACES AND
MONUMENTS IN NORTHERN CYPRUS. 9

4.1 Places to see in
Kyrenia. 9

4.2 Places to see in
Nicosia. 9

4.3 Places to see in
Famagusta. 10

4.4 Places to see in
Guzelyurt 11

4.5 Places to see in Lefke. 11

5. HISTORY OF NICOSIA.. 35

5.1 THE MIDDLE AGE CITY
WALLS AND ENTRANCES OF NICOSIA.. 35

5.2 EARLY CHRISTIANITY AND
BYZANTINE PERIOD.. 35

5.3 THE CASTLE OF LUSIGNON
AND WALLS OF IT. 35

5.4 THE WALLS OF VENETIAN.. 36

5.5 THE WALLS OF NICOSIA
AND ENTRANCES IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE PERIOD.. 38

5.6 THE GATE OF KYRENIA
–PORTO DEL PROVEDITORE- 38

5.7 THE GATE OF BAF –PORTA
DOMENICO- 39

5.8 THE GATE OF FAMAGUSTA
–PORTA GIULIANA- 40

5.9 THE ENTRANCE GATES OF
NICOSIA WHICH HAVE BEEN OPENED TO THE GATES. 40

6. The Rehabilitation
Programme of the Walled City Nicosia Old Town, Cyprus. 42

6.1 Aim of The
Rehabilitation Programme. 43

6.2 Local Architectural
Character 43

6.3 Shape of Walled City. 44

6.4 Design Concepts of
Buildings. 47

6.5 People Involved in The
Rehabilitation Programme of The Walled City Nicosia Old Town. 51

7. Impact of The
Renovation Programme of The Walled City Nicosia Old Town on to the Cyprus
Cultural Tourism Industry. 51

8. CONCLUSION.. 53

9. REFERENCES. 54

 

2. TURKISH REPUBLIC OF NORTHERN
CYPRUS

Figure – Flag of Northern Cyprus

Figure – Coat of Arms of Northern Cyprus

2.1
Brief Information About Northern Cyprus

Northern Cyprus
(Turkish: Kuzey K?br?s, Greek: ?????? ??????), officially the Turkish Republic
of Northern Cyprus (Turkish: Kuzey K?br?s Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a self-known country
that it is in the north eastern part of the island of Cyprus. Govermently known
only by Turkey, Northern Cyprus is considered by the international community to
be part of the Republic of Cyprus.

Northern Cyprus
begins from the tip of the Karpass Peninsula in the northeast to Morphou Bay,
Cape Kormakitis and its most far poin is the Kokkina in the west. Its southest
point is the village of Louroujina. A buffer zone under the control of the
United Nations along between Northern Cyprus and the rest of the island and
divides Nicosia, the island’s largest city and capital of both sides.

In 1974 a coup
d’état, performed as part of an attempt to conquer the island to Greece,
prompted the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. This resulted in the taking control of
much of the north’s Greek Cypriot population, the flight of Turkish Cypriots
from the south, and the partitioning of the island, leading to a unilateral
declaration of independence by the North in 1983. Due to its lack of unknown
country situation, Northern Cyprus is heavily dependent on Turkey for economic,
political and military support.

Attempts to
reach a solution to the Cyprus dispute have been unsuccessful. The Turkish Army
puts a large military force in Northern Cyprus. While its presence is supported
and approved by the turkish government, the Republic of Cyprus and the
international community regard it as an occupation force, and its presence condemned
in several United Nations Security Council solutions.

Northern Cyprus
is a democratic republic with a cultural heritage incorporating various
influences and an economy that is dominated by the services sector. The economy
has seen growth through the 2000s and 2010s, with the GNP per capita more than
tripling in the 2000s, but is held back by an international embargo due to the
official closure of the ports in Northern Cyprus by the Republic of Cyprus. The
official language is Turkish, with a distinct local type Turkish is being
spoken. The majority of the population consists of Sunni Muslims, while
religious attitudes are mostly moderate and secular. Northern Cyprus is an
observer of the OIC and ECO, and has observer status in the PACE under the
title “Turkish Cypriot Community”. 2

2.2
Administrative divisions

Northern Cyprus
is divided into six districts: Nicosia, Famagusta, Kyrenia, Omorpho, Iskele and
Lefke. Lefke District was established by separation from the Omorpho District
in 2016.39 In addition, there are also twelve sub-districts divided between
the five larger districts and twenty-eight boroughs. 2

Figure – Cities of Northern Cyprus

2.3
Economy of Northern Cyprus

The economy of
Northern Cyprus is dominated by the services sector (69% of GDP in 2007), which
includes the public sector, trade, tourism and education. Industry (light
manufacturing) contributes 22% of GDP and agriculture 9%.5 The economy
operates on a free-market basis, with a significant portion of administration
costs funded by Turkey. The TRNC uses the Turkish lira as its currency, which
links its economic situation to the Turkish economy.

 

As of 2014, the
GDP per capita of Northern Cyprus was $15,109, and the GDP was $4.039 billion.
The economy grew by 4.9% in 2014 and 2.8% in 2013, meaning that Northern Cyprus
is growing faster than the Republic of Cyprus.16 Northern Cyprus has seen
economic growth and declining unemployment throughout the 2010s; the
unemployment rate in 2015 was at 7.4%, down from 8.3% in 2014.7 The inflation
rate in June 2015 was at 3.18%.

 

 

 

 

3. TOURISM IN NORTHERN CYPRUS

 

Tourism is considered as one of the driving sectors of the
Turkish Cypriot economy. The country received over 1.1 million tourists in
2012, when hotels and restaurants gets an income of $328 million and
constituted 8.5% of the GDP. Accommodation and catering created more than
10,000 jobs in the same year. The tourism sector has seen great development in
the 2000s and 2010s, with the number of tourists more than doubling, increased
investment and hotel construction; official estimates of income derived from
tourism were around 700 million US dollars in 2013 and the total bed capacity
was estimated to be around 20,000. Casino tourism and income from students
studying in collages is one of the major sectors of the North Cyprus economy.

 

Kyrenia is considered the capital of tourism in Northern
Cyprus, with its too many hotels, entertainment facilities, extravagant nightlife
and shopping areas. In 2012, 62.7% of the visitors in Northern Cyprus stayed in
the Kyrenia District during their visit. Out of the 145 hotels in Northern
Cyprus, 99 were in the Kyrenia District in 2013.

 

Northern Cyprus has traditionally been an attraction for
beach holidays, partly thanks to its reputation as an unspoiled area. Its mild
climate, rich history and nature are seen as sources of attraction. A
significant sector of eco-tourism has been developed in Northern Cyprus, as
tourists visit it for birdwatching, cycling, walking and observing flowers in the
wild. It is praised for its relative safety, and especially for the Dip karpaz
area, its well-preservation.

The Dipkarpaz is home to several sorts of tourism: it hosts
the Bafra Tourism. Area as a center for beach addicts, where until 2014 4 luxurious
and large hotels were built, several facilities and regular festivals that
highlight its rural qualities and exhibit local traditions, a remote natural
park, the Kantara Castle attracting sightseers, and a marina that was built to
host international yachts and boats, along with large facilities. 3

 

Casino tourism has also grown to become a significant
contribution to the economy in Northern Cyprus. They were first opened in the
1990s, and have since become very popular with visitors from Turkey and the
rest of the island, where casinos are banned. This has led to huge investments
in the casino sector. However, the sector has been criticized due to claims of
its lack of benefits for the small and middle-scale business and shop owners.
3

3.1
Arrivals by country

CountryYear

2003

 

2012

 

 

1

Turkey

340.000

 

904.000

 

 

2

UK (non-Turkish Cypriot)

 

47.160

 

 

3

UK (TCs)

 

26.200

 

 

4

Germany

 

23.580

 

 

5

Iran

 

20.960

 

 

Total

470.000

 

1.166.000

 

 

Table – Number of Arrivals by country as of the end of
2012 4

Although there
are two airports in Northern Cyprus, the Ercan Airport and Geçitkale Airport,
neither have been recognized due to the ongoing disputes involving the
political status and recognition of Northern Cyprus. All international flights
are done via Turkey by public and private airline companies. 4

3.2
Marina tourism

Marina tourism
also developed in recent years; many international yacht voyagers come to
Northern Cyprus every year. 4

International
memberships of Northern Cyprus and its organizations in tourism

ü  Karpaz Gate Marina is a member of International
Council of Marine Industry Associations (ICOMIA) since 2014.

ü  Karpaz Gate Marina of Northern Cyprus became a
member of ART Marine’s international marinas network in 2014.

ü  Cyprus Turkish Tourism and Travel Agents Union is a
member of United Federation of Travel Agents’ Associations (UFTAA).7 and
Global Alliance of Travel Agent Associations (GATAA)

 

4. HISTORICAL PLACES AND MONUMENTS IN NORTHERN CYPRUS

4.1
Places to see in Kyrenia

Anthipanitis Church Bellapais Monastery Buffavento Castle Folk Arts Museum Hz. Omer TombIcon Museum Karmi Necropolis Kirsokava Kyrenia Castle Kyrenia Harbour Lambousa Lapta (Lapithos) Shipwreck Museum Sourpmagar Monastery

·       
St. Hilarion Castle

Vrysi (Catalkoy) 6

4.2
Places to see in Nicosia

Arap Ahmet Mosque BedestenDervis Pasa Mansion Gambler’s Inn Grand Bath Great Inn Iplik Pazari MosqueHaydarpasa Mosque – The St. Catherine CathedralKyrenia Gate Lapidary Museum Mevlevi Tekke Museum Nicosia City-Walls Sarayonu MosqueSelimiye Mosque – The St. Sophia CathedralSultan Mahmut Library Turunclu Mosque Venetian Column & Ataturk Square Yenicami Mosque 6

4.3
Places to see in Famagusta

Arsenal (Martinengo Bastion)Canbulat Tomb & Museum Cellarga Mass – Graves Enkomi (Alasia) Famagusta City Walls Greek St. George Church Kertikli Bath Land Gate (Ravelin) Lala Mustafa Pasa MosqueLatin St. George ChurchNamik Kemal Dungeon Nestorian Church Nikokreon Monument Nitovikla Castle Othello Castle Panaya Kanakaria Church Royal Tombs Salamis Sea Gate Sinan Pasa Mosque: (St. Peter & St. Paul Church) St. Barnabas Monastery St. Barnabas Icon & Archaelogy Museum St. Francis Church Twin Churches (Templar & Hospitaller Churces) Venetian Palace

4.4
Places to see in Guzelyurt

Guzelyurt MuseumSt. Mamas Monastery

4.5
Places to see in Lefke

SoliVouni Palace 6

-Kyrenia-

Anthipanitis
Church

The church is part
of an old monastery. Its architectural style is not common in Cyprus. The dome
is supported by octagonally arranged circular columns. It is a good example of
Gothic masonry. Its entrance was added in the 15th century. Some of the
frescoes that have survived are original, some were made in the 15th century.
In the original fresces, Mary is portrayed between the Archangel Gabriel and
Mikhail, holding a child on her chest. In some frescoes, Gabriel, St. Anthony
and the baptizing scene, St. Eudoksia and St. Paul are portrayed. In the
painting on the ceiling which depicts the preparation of the throne, Christ is
portrayed in a medallion circled with angels, with Mary on one side, John the
Baptist on the other. The twelve apostles and the prophets are also present. 8

Bellapais
Monastery/Bellapais Abbey

Gothic Bellapais
Monastery also known as Bellapais Abbey is set on the flanks of the Five-finger
(Kyrenia) Mountains in the beautiful hillside village of Bellapais. As a former
home of British writer Lawrence Durrell (1912-1990), Bellapais Abbey is a
Northern Cyprus highlight that should not be missed by any visitor. 8

Figure – Bellapais Monestery

Buffavento Castle

One of the three
castles, Buffavento was constructed on the Kyrenia Range as a line of defence
against the Arab attacks – the other two being St. Hilarion Castle, and Kantara
Castle. It is the least well preserved and sited on a hill top 940m above sea
level. 8

Kyrenia Kolk Arts Museum

An 18th century
house on the Kyrenia harbour is now used as a museum. On the ground floor there
are olive presses, a primitive plow, a loom, jugs, and a flail. On the upper
floor there are samples of traditional handicraft: crochet, bed covers and
table cloths, woolen socks, chests with carving, wedding-dresses and wardrobes
are some of the things exhibited. 8

Hz. Omer Tomb

Direction is that;
follow the road east of Kyrenia directed towards Çatalköy. The tomb lies in a
distance about 3 miles (5 km). Take the left turning for track and the road
leads down to the sea. It is signed as “Hazreti Ömer Türbesi” from
the coast road and it represents a significant Islamic symbol. The tomb is said
to be the final resting place of commander Omer and his companions from the Muaviye
army. 8

Icon Museum

The former
Arkhangelos Church is being used as an icon museum to exhibit the icons
collected from kyrenia and the vicinity. The church was built in 1860. A campanile,
added to it twenty five years later can be viewed from all around Kyrenia. 8

Karmi Necropolis

In the
archaelogical researches close to the Karmi village, tombs in the shape of
rooms belonging to the Middle Bronze Age have been discovered. The human statue
in the corridors of one of these tombs, is the oldest sculpt found in Cyprus so
far. The sculpt symbolizes the Goddess of Fertility. Blue rosary thought to
have been gifts for the dead, and pots belonging to the Minos civilisation
brought from Girit island were found in the graves. These things may have
belonged to the sailors working on the ships in Lapithos. These show the level
of commercial activities with the neighbouring countries in the Bronze age. 8

Kyrenia Castle

The castle is
constructed to protect the town against the Arab invasions in the 7th century
thought like that. Like the Kantara Castle, it played an important role in the
Lusignan period. In this period the castle undergone a lot of changes due to renovation
work. The restoration joc was interrupted briefly in 1373, because of the
Genoese blockade but went on afterwards. When the castle was first built, the
fortifications were constructed with the armoured knights and archers in mind.
When the Genoese took control of the castle in 1489, they reconstructed the
fortifications taking the Ottoman cannons into consideration. They added the
northwestern and the southeastern towers as an extra precaution. In spite of
all this, however, they surrendered the castle to the Ottomans without putting
up any resistance in 1570. 8

Figure – Kyrenia Castle

The entrance to
the castle is via a bridge built over a wide water pot hole. This trench was
full of water until the 1400s. The Lusignan markings of three lions on the
vault of the inner gate has been brought here from another building. Inside the
castle there is a Byzantian church (St. George) thought to have been
constructed in the 11 hundreds. The tomb of the Ottoman Admiral, Sadik Pasha
the Algerian, who was killed during the conquest of Cyprus by the Ottomans in
1570 is also in this castle. The other sections of the castle are: the Venetian
Towers of the Northwest, Southwest, and Southeast; the guards’ room, the big
hall, various dungeons, and rooms used as depots belonging to the Lusignan period;
a tower belonging to the Byzantine period; the Venetian defence platform; a
cistern; an arsenal, and a cannon parapet belonging to the Venetian period; and
the shipwreck museum. The Department of Antiquities created the atmosphere of
an open-air museum in the castle by personifying different historical
characters and by using site-animation. 8

Kyrenia Harbour

The harbour is
appreciated for its natural beauty. In its heyday it was lined with warehouses,
stored with fruits of the countryside whilst they awaited export. The buildings
are now mostly all restaurants, all of which have tables and chairs lining the
water. The castle at the east end of the harbour is a very spectacular site and
within its walls there is a 12 century chapel showing reused late Roman
capitals. 8

The charming and
tiny harbour, full of yachts and fishing boats, is framed by the colossal hulk
of its Crusader castle. With the backdrop of the jagged mountains behind and
the calm sparkling sea in front, the harbour has an intoxicatingly serene
atmosphere. 8

Figure – Kyrenia Harbour

Lambousa

The first settlers
of Lambousa came from Greece in the 13th century B.C.; the region came under
Phoenician control in the 8th century B.C..During the Roman and the Byzantine
periods the region enjoyed prosperity. Civilian architectural buildings like a
theatre and a gymnasium were also constructed. This period of prosperity ended
with the Arab raids in the 7th century. Among the noteworthy remains are the
walls, the rock tombs and the fish pools. The fish pools were carved in the
Roman period; they contain canals for the clean water to flow in and for the
dirty and warm water to flow out. Most of the findings belonging to Lambousa
which contain a lot of valuable items like plates and spoons were brought to
daylight during a two-stage excavation activity in the 19 hundreds.
Unfortunately, most of these are being exhibited in the museums of foreign
cities like London and New York. These treasures are thought to have been
buried underground during the raids of the Arab pirates. As most items bear the
Empire seal, they are understood to have been made between 627-630. 8

Lapta (Lapithos)

Because of the
frequency of the Arab raids, the inhabitants of Lambousa moved their settlement
to the skirt of the mountain and found the Lapta of the present day. The
settlement in Lapta develops even further during the Lusignan period. In
addition to Lapta, the excavations in the region reveal clues of settlements
belonging to the calcolitic period, and chamber tombs belonging to the Iron
Age. 8

The Sourpmagar Monastery

The Sourp Magar
Monastery was first founded as a Coptic monastery around 1000 A.D. and it was
dedicated to the Alexandrian saint Makarios. It is also referred to as the
monastery of Mary. The monastery passed on to the Armenians at the beginning of
the 15th century. In time, it became a stopover of the Armenian pilgrims on
their way to Jerusalem -a second pilgrimage point- and continued to fulfill
this function until 1974. It was also used as a summer resort by the Armenians
living in Nicosia. The remains date back to the 19th century. A panel with
Armenian writing has been found on its walls. 8

St. Hilarion Castle

Located west of the main Kyrenia-Nicosia highway, in
the Kyrenia Mountain range, St Hilarion castle is the westernmost and best
preserved of the three redoubts built by the Byzantines and Crusaders. 8

The legend of St Hilarion  

Although there is not adequately evidence, the castle
is said to be called after the saint of the name. St Hilarion, a little-known
hermit and monk fled persecution from Palestine during the 7 th century to
dwell and die up in the castle. According to legend he was extremely deaf and
resilient to the shrieks of pagan demons that had been lurking and wandering
about in the mountain peak. Disgusted at their inability to make him go, they
left mountain in peace. During the 10 th century a Byzantine chapel, monastery
and later a fort grew around his tomb. 8

Figure – Scenic view from Mountain

 

It is known that the Byzantine fort was called Didymos,
the Greek name for the twin peaks overhead. The Lusignans corrupted this to Dieu
d’Amour, maybe confusing a mixture of legends and believing that this was
the castle of Aphrodite. 8

With walls and towers that appear to sprout out of the
rocks almost randomly, it is a fairly-tale sight living up to Rose Macaulay’s
much-quoted description “a picture-book castle for elf-kings” and the rumour
that Walt Disney used it as a model for the castle in Snow White and Seven
Dwarfs. The legend that was spread locally says that St Hilarion housed 101
rooms, of which 100 could easily be found; the last, an enchanted garden with a
magnificent treasure belonging to an elusive “queen” of Cypriot folklore, most
probably a holdover of Aphrodite worship. 8

Figure – Scenic view from Mountain

 

Vrysi
(Catalkoy)

Vrysi is a
settlement dating to the Neolithic Period. The excavations have revealed that
the settlers of this region came to Cyprus from a district in Anatolia called
Kilikya between 4000-3000 B.C.. The economy of the settlement was dependent on
agriculture. The earthenware bowls are handmade. The houses are connected to
each other by narrow tunnels. The walls are made of stone and wet clay. The
inner walls are plastered with wet clay. The roofs are made of reeds and
covered with mud and wet clay. Rush mats were used on the floor. Following the
earthquake affect around the year 3000 B.C. the people of Vrysi abandoned this
place and settled somewhere else. 8

-Nicosia-

Dervis
Pasa Mansion

The owner of this two
storey mansion built in the 19th century was Dervis Pasa, the publisher of
“Zaman” – the first Turkish newspaper in Cyprus. The mansion is in
the Arap Ahmet region of Nicosia: this is the region of the walled city which
has preserved the fabric of the historical environment most intensely. The mansion
has two entrances. On the main entrance, the year 1219 of the Muslim Calendar
(1807) is visible. The ground floor has been constructed of stone and the upper
floor of sundried brick. The year 1869 is visible on the ornamented ceiling of
the main room which is a later addition to the building. The mansion has an ‘L’

x

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