Because generations have passed and styles and cultures have changed, however one thing that remains the same is the value of education. Education Reform became important in the mid-1800’s. The United States continued to expand, and the economy was taken over by industrialization. American citizens wanted to create schools, which would help train the future working generations. (Winslow, 2009). Education was the “child’s natural right” These words were spoken by a man named Horace Mann. He was a member of the Massachusetts state legislature, and then he became secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education. He believed everyone had the right to an education. The “Common School” was created as a formal education, one that would be available to all people and be supported by local property taxes (Winslow, 2009). This school was made for the “Common man and woman. ” The purpose of this movement was to provide an education for all Americans despite class, color, and gender, and to provide equal education for every student. Education was made to help the poor overcome poverty, but America still did not offer education to everyone. When towns did allow African Americans to attend school, most made them go to separate schools that received less money. Also, most high schools and colleges did not admit females. In the 1800’s the “common school” was created as a public school in the United States. Horace Mann was the man behind this school. He believed the goal of this school was created for people of any background (Beck 5-31). “In the northern states of the 1860’s, the idea of the common school had gained wide acceptance and received support from both government and religious organizations” (Beck, 5-31). The Common School soon became a model for the rest of the nation to follow. Horace Mann believed education was made to improve society and humanity. “He took on the office of Secretary of the Board of Education with a religious fervor and saw his duty as “given by God” (Groen, 251-260). Horace Mann saw education as a social equalizer. Page Break What the Common School Movement failed to address was the issue of racism and segregation. Black schools were usually at the mercy of the white controlled state government for funding. Black schools received far less support than white schools because of racism. Black schools had fewer books, buildings that were not in good conditions and teachers who were paid far less than the average teaching salary. “Whites of the nineteenth century were against black’s search for public schooling, fearing that access to public education would bring white and black children together in the classroom and on the playground” (Spivey, 1117). In 1831 education for blacks was not permitted. The abolitionist movement gave educational opportunities for African Americans (Winslow, 2009). In 1835, Oberlin College Institute, which was founded in 1833, was the first college to accepted black women to have the opportunity to receive college training. According to Daughters of America Rejoice, “The college and its women wanted the world to know that a liberal education at a radical college would not, in the words of one student, “Rob a woman of her nature, divest her of the softer graces and give her a masculine character” (12-21). In 1837 four young women asked to be admitted into the men’s baccalaureate degree program. This was a huge historic step for women because women were not allowed to get a full college education. They were trained to be wives and school teachers and went on to only receive a certificate with no degree. Lastly, by the 1800’s, most states followed in Horace Mann’s steps. Although the school system was moving in the right way, it still, for the most part, did not accept females. In the year 1831, in Canterbury, Connecticut, located in the northeastern part of the state, a seminary school for young ladies were opened. Prudence Crandell who was a young woman with a good reputation who agreed to open this school. The first people admitted were daughters of white residents of the state. Later Crandell decided to admit one African American student, and shortly after, parents of her white students began to withdraw their daughters (Johnson, 202-225). She eventually closed the school due to fearing for her life and also for the student’s life. Crandell was a woman who fought for African Americans to have the same rights as whites. Her school reflected many of the problems and concerns in the educational reform movements of her time (Johnson, 202-225). Writers from all social classes promoted education for girls beyond elementary school and agreed girls were capable of doing the same type of work boys did. Finally, in the education reform movement era in the 1800’s, the creation of the Common School by Horace Mann was to provide an equal education to all people. Unfortunately, a program such as the Common School could not be the cure, due to an unjust system. The opportunity for progress still seemed to be a struggle after the Civil War, but aside from that, historic black colleges continued to be founded, and women opportunities for education continued to expand. The education reform movement continues to progress over the years and continues to provide education for all children of different backgrounds, such as the” No Child Left Behind” program.