Chapter 10- Education is different for almost every nation although some share similarities. Education in the Byzantine empire was very different than today, however, there were some similarities with education systems today. For example, there were three stages in the Byzantine empire education system just as there are in some countries today. The legacy of classical Greece was especially noticeable in Byzantine education. The Byzantine state considered education vitally important since its bureaucracy called for large numbers of literate individuals to administer the empire. As a result, the state organized a school system that offered a primary education in reading, writing, and grammar, followed by studies of classical Greek literature, philosophy, and science. Girls generally were not allowed in school. Instead, only the girls who were born in wealthy families could afford private tutors. In today’s education system it shares many similarities with the Byzantine empire educational system but it also shares some differences. For an example of a today’s education system, I will use the U.S. education system. One of the similarities that today’s education shares with the Byzantine empire is how much emphasis is put on education. The U.S. stresses the importance of education just as the Byzantine empire did. In the U.S. all public schooling is free. A difference in the Byzantine empire and generally the world’s education system almost every country allows girls to go to school with the exception of middle eastern schools but that view is changing. It is clear to see how there are both similarities between the Byzantine empire and the U.S. education system it shows how much education has changed. Chapter 13- Irrigation in India has been changing throughout its history. In northern India, large rivers and plentiful surface water provided abundant opportunities to build irrigation systems. Indeed, irrigation has been a must-have in northern India since Harappan times. However for southern India is an arid land without rivers that can serve as sources for large-scale irrigation. As southern India became more and populated, irrigation became important. Dams, reservoirs, and canals were built. Impressive dams and reservoirs were lined with brick or stone that captured the rains of the spring and summer seasons and held them until the dry season when canals carried them to the fields. Today India still needs these reservoirs and continues to build more.It is still a major concern that around 60 percent of the crops rely on rain, despite large investments in the expansion of irrigation. Some of the reasons there haven’t been any major advancements are delays in completion, interstate water disputes, and increasing the cost of irrigation. This shows that despite a long history of irrigation in India it still needs improvement. Chapter 16- Crops and tools have been changing throughout Europe’s history. Peasant cultivators on manors also cleared forest, drained swampland, and increased the amount of land devoted to agriculture during the middle ages. As they did so, they also experimented with new agricultural techniques and implements. By the high Middle Ages, European cultivators were experimented with new crops and with different cycles of crop rotation to ensure the most abundant harvest without compromising the fertility of the soil. They increased cultivation especially of beans, which not only provided dietary but also enriched the land because of their property of fixing nitrogen in the soils where they grow. In addition European people In Europe today they grow many different types of crops and have improved their farming techniques. Today in Europe they still grow beans but the main crop that is grown today is wheat. Along with wheat, maize and barley is also grown. The tools have changed to today we have special vehicles to farm the land. We have Tractors that pull plows to till the land. They also have new advancements in irrigation that helps give the plants the water they need. This shows that since the middle ages new crops have appeared along with new and easier farming techniques and farming equipment.