OF RELATED LITERATURE, CONCEPTS, AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
In this chapter, the
writer would like to present some points that related to this study. There are
three main parts which are speaking proficiency, review of the previous study,
and the theoretical framework. These theories will give clear information about
2.1.1 The definition of Speaking Proficiency
Tarigan (1990: 3) speaking is a language skill that is developed in child life,
which is produced by listening skill, and at that period speaking skill is
learned. Based on the curriculum competence, speaking is one of the four basic
competences that the students should gain well and it has an important role in
communication (National Education Department, 2004). In order to learning
speaking, absolutely students have some difficulties to speak even though they
are able to write English sentences. One of the problems that usually teacher
found in classroom is the feeling of afraid to make mistakes.
Speaking is included to
productive skill which means it could not be separated with other skill
especially listening skill. When we speak, we produce something through our
mouth and the result should be meaningful. Speakers talk with the aim to give
information to the listener or have some effect from the listener such as
feedback, comment, etc.
Harmer (1990: 12)
writes that when teaching speaking or producing skill, we can apply three major
stages; those are introducing new language, practice, and communicate activity.
The class cannot start the class with practicing spontaneously without having a
session of introducing a new language that is going to be learnt. In order to
reach the objectives of teaching speaking, the class should start from the very
small step then move to the bigger step.
Ladouse (1991) states
that speaking is described as the activity as the ability to express oneself in
the situation, or the activity to report acts, or situation in precise words or
the ability to converse or to express a sequence of ideas fluently.
Furthermore, speaking could be the way of communication that influences our
individual life strongly.
In Oxford Advanced Learner’s
Dictionary, the meaning of speaking is making use of words, knowing and being able
to use language; expressing oneself in word, making speech, while is the ability
to do something well. Thus, the writer can infer that speaking is the ability of
human being to perform the knowledge of linguistic in real communication in order
to express feeling, thoughts, and ideas vocally.
Based on the statements
above, it can be summarized that speaking is a process of building and sharing the
meaning of information through verbal ways in a variety context. Furthermore, speaking
proficiency plays the important role in language learning, including the new language
that will be learnt.