In was an important aspect. It would only be

the decade of 1960, the United Nations plunged into a profound institutional
crisis, from which the role of the Secretariat in managing peace missions was
an important aspect. It would only be equated at the end of that decade, and
one of its findings was the reduction of the Secretariat’s independence in
conducting operations, which would be more directly subjected to the political
control of the UNSC. Until the mid-1980, when the slow end of the cold War
allowed greater Security Council activism, peacekeeping operations were few –
only 13 May 1948 to May 1988 – and with restricted mandates. The Secretariat’s
structure was also very economical, maintaining a small number of political
planners around the USG and a single military-the Secretary-General’s military
advisor – in addition to a few officials in charge of administrative,
logistical, and Financial. (12) According to Rikhye, the superpowers preferred
this precarious structure because they believed that peacekeeping operations
should be maintained as an ad hoc political arrangement, which could be easily
altered by the states. (13) It is worth highlighting two secretariat features
in its early decades of peace missions: 1) The institutional leadership of the
theme of 1956 to 1986 fits two employees only, Ralph Bunche (1956-1971) and
Brian Urquhart (1971-1986), who conducted the missions with Great personal
effort and personalism and with a rooted culture of improvisation and crisis
management; 2) There was a great reluctance to incorporate military into the
Secretariat’s structure, although the missions had its backbone in the
participation of troops. (14)

this first phase, in which the UNSG enjoyed extensive political support and the
mission produced positive results, the Secretariat had considerable
independence, just reporting its actions to the States. Hammarskjöld and Bunche
formulated the basic principles that delimit until today the work of the peace
missions: impartiality, use of force only in legitimate defense and the need
for consent of the parties to conflict. To the intergovernmental organs, it
fits a restricted supervisory function. (9) Attempting to apply the same
political practices to the United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC), (10)
established in 1960, would lead to a strong pressure from some Member States –
especially from USSR and France – so that the Secretariat had less autonomy.

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UNEF also proved revolutionary for the Secretariat. The previous missions,
observation, were relatively simple to organize and utilize known procedures.
The mission in Sinai has requested the mobilization of thousands of military
personnel and the establishment of new concepts and procedures. In addition to
his own UNSG, they were responsible for the subject the Undersecretary-General
for Special Political Affairs (USG), the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Ralph
Bunche, and his alternate, future successor and responsible for the theme for
almost 30 years, Brian Urquhart. It was, in the Secretariat, of innovative
work, but with simple structure, which gathered no more than a dozen employees
for planning and execution in New York. (8)

The history of the United
Nations peace missions began in 1948-49, with the establishment of the UNTSO
(Middle East) and the UNMOGIP (India-Pakistan), as groups of observers, which
were precedents in the League of Nations. (6) The idea of peacekeeping as an
innovative international policy instrument only actually emerged in 1956, with
the establishment of the United Nations First Emergency Force (UNEF), to act on
the Sinai Peninsula. Architected by the Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld,
with support from Canadian Chancellor Lester Pearson and the majority of the
General Assembly, the UNEF managed to circumvent the obstacles of the cold war
and make the United Nations essential to overcome the Suez crisis, which
threatened to drag us and USSR for an unpredictable conflict. (7)


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