Kuhn paradigms Paradigms are characterized by 1. Ontology which

Kuhn in 1962 define paradigm as the set of common beliefs and agreements shared between scientists about how problems should be understood and addressed. Paradigms are sets of beliefs and practices of researchers that regulates inquiry and work within a discipline and by this a specific research is approached.Orlikowski and Baroudi described three paradigms Positivist, Interpretive and Critical, classified by Epistemology. Guba and Lincoln also explained post positivist along with other already mentioned paradigms Paradigms are characterized by 1.    Ontology which questions “What is the form and nature of reality?”2.    Epistemology which questions “How do you know the knowledge and What can be known  ?”3.    Methodology which questions “How do you find out what can be known ?”Epistemology is concerned with the nature and forms of knowledge (Cohen et al., 2007, p. 7) and Ontology is the study of being (Crotty, 1998, p. 10) and “they shape the approach to theory and the methods” that are employed by social scientist (Marsh& Furlong, 2010: p.   Epistemology and ontology together make a sense to view the knowleged and how a researcher relates to it. Ontological and epistemological perspective has a set of choices which includes deductive versus inductive, objective versus subjective, realism versus relativism.Objectivism is the view that things exist as meaningful entities independently of counciouness and experience, that they have truth and meaning residing in them as objects truth and meaning and researcher can attain it(Crotty, 1998, p. 4). Objectivist and subjectivist are associated with the same philosophy of classical liberalism with significant differences between them forming two different approaches. Peter T. Calcagnoa Subjective research is generally referred to as phenomenological research.( http://www.open.edu/openlearn/money-management/understanding-different-research-perspectives/content-section-1)Positivism has an ontological perspective which believes in realism and assumes that an apprehendable reality exists (guba). It believes in a single truth which is investigated with structured instrumentation((Crotty, 1998, p. 9).This paradigm is reductionist and deterministic(Hesse, 1980) In this empiricist epistemological perspective, it is assumed that the researcher and the object of investigation are independent entities and neither of them can be influenced by each other.(guba). The focus is on reliable and valid tools to obtain the reality and bias to be prevented.The methodology in positivism is experimental and attempt to explain relationship (J Scotland), identify cause which influences outcomes(Creswell, 2009, p. 7). Questions and hypothesis are stated and put to an empirical test to verify them(guba). With a deductive approach and belief that everything can be observed and measured, results are derived which may be used to formulate laws(J scotland).Post-positivism has developed from positivism has some similar beliefs but not identical(J scotland).It accepts the philosophy of critical realism (cook, cambell, 1979) and assumes that reality can only be apprehended imperfectly, observation can be fallible, can have errors and theory can The methodology. It claims that reality must be subjected to critical examination by multiple measurements and observations to know reality to the best possible but may not be perfect (cook, cambell, 1979; Guba)Karl popper annexed the epistemology of falsification and there can be bias due to the intractable nature of the phenomena(guba), the researcher can be biased by their world view, so all observations are fallible. The emphasis on using different measures which may have some error but in triangulation may give better results. It attempts to establish relationships rather than just to measure the effects of the cause.Methodology flows the ways of falsifying the hypotheses rather than just verifying it and incorporates Feyerabend’s methodological pluralism (Hetherington 2000).It refers to a combination of methods depending upon the specific research question and use a more integrated approach to study the phenomenon (Adam, 2014). It does not reject quantitative methods but accepts qualitative methods also and measures variable that cannot be observed. It prefers quasi-experiments over true-experiments Cohen et al. (2007, p. 8) Interpretive paradigm rejects the principles of positivism and post-positivism(Hillary). Relativism is the ontological perspective of interpretivism(j scotland). Reality is interpreted to understand phenomenon by analyzing the meanings assigned by the participants (Croty, Scotland) It believes that individuals have their own subjectivity and reality is not the same for every individual.(croty ; guba) The epistemological is one of subjectivism and transactional (guba; j Scotland). The researcher and the object of research are linked and the findings are created as the study progress(guba). There is no objective reality to discover but needs to be constructed and individuals may interpret truth in different ways.(Croty page 9).  We call the tree a tree because humans constructed the social world(Hillary) and named it a tree.  Crotty (1998, p. 43).The emphasis of the methodology is on individual constructions, elicited by the interaction of the researcher and the respondent which is interpreted by hermeneutical techniques.(guba).Interpretive approach is usually inductive and knowledge is generated from the findings(J scotland).Critical paradigm has historical realism as the ontological perspective. It believes that reality over time has been shaped by multiple factors and formulated on to a series of structures which a false virtual reality. (guba) The epistemology it has is of subjectivism.  The results are value mediated as the researcher, and the object of research are linked and the research is influenced by the value of the researcher. (guba). It challenges reality and believes that reality can be deformed by humans(j scotland) and individuals are with the world when they are in the world(croty 149)Critical paradigm has a dialogic approach between the researcher and the subject of inquiry(guba). The methodology is directed at interrogating values and assumptions and engages in social action and challenges the conventional structures(J scotland). It has critical discourse analysis, critical discourse analysis, critical ethnography, action research and ideology critique.Modernism and postmodernism rejects the idea of a fixed, universal reality and truth  It follows multiple methodologies This is a deductive study which will compare different technique in terms of minimum errors and duration for the completion of the technique, both the variables to measured are quantitative. The observation and measures are liable for error and biasknowledgeand every attempt will be made to control it. The ontological position of the study will be critical realism with the belief of existence of an objective reality which can be measured but may have bias and so will have consciousness examination. The measurement will be derived by two researchers to get the best result. This will study follow post-positivist paradigm from an ontological perspective which believes the existence of an objective reality that is one which can be measured. A quasi-experimental methodology will be used to collect quantitative data  

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