Moreover, students will have a slower academic progression compared

 Moreover, in many situations the simultaneous
condition of worker and student may involve overloading commitment, increasing
psychological stress and anxiety related to fear of academic failure (Robotham
2008). Therefore, since attending lectures, study hours, and extracurricular
participation have a beneficial effect on academic performance (Hanks and
Eckland 1976; Misra and McKean 2000; Arulampalam et al. 2011), and, in turn,
working during higher education is likely to decrease the time devoted to these
activities, it may have a negative effect on academic progression. Thus, the
zero-sum approach predicts that working students will have a slower academic
progression compared to non working students and this disadvantage will persist
even controlling for other characteristics, because of the intrinsic
characteristics of the work experience. Second, according to the ‘negative
selection-to-work’ hypothesis, it is likely to find that nonworking students
have better academic performance and progression than working students.
However, these differences may be related not to the negative effect of
employment per se, but to observed or unobserved pre-existing differences
between the two groups of students, such as social background, ability and
motivation (Warren et al. 2000; Warren 2002). Working students can be
systematically different from nonworking students: for example, they can show a
higher propensity to work because they obtained poor grades in their previous
school stages, or they consider academic success less important than other
students do. Therefore, working students’ poor performance may reflect a
process of academic disengagement that begins before the students enter the
labor market. Therefore, the ‘negative selection-to-work’ approach predicts
that differences in academic progression among nonworking students and working
students will disappear once their pre-existing characteristics are controlled
for. Nevertheless, the ‘negative selection-to-work’ hypothesis has been
elaborated mainly with a reference to student work in high school. The
student-workers’ situation in higher education could be different, since this
educational level is not compulsory. High school leavers who decide to continue
to study at university should know in advance that they will have to manage
both work and learning at higher level and this is relatively more demanding
than working or studying alone. Therefore, they could be on average highly
motivated to pursue university education, perceiving work primarily as an
instrument to finance their studies. Thus, since the working student condition
is demanding, it will negatively affects academic progression; however, the
higher motivation of working students or their ability to cope simultaneously
with work and learning could help them in their academic studies, making their
credits accumulation similar to that of non-working students. At the end,
according to the ‘reconciliation approach’, there is not necessarily a negative
relationship between student employment and academic outcomes, for several
reasons. First of all, the zero-sum hypothesis was elaborated to explain the
relation between employment and school outcomes for high-school students. It
seems less applicable to university students because they often don’t have
compulsory classes, they spend less time in classroom and thus (Robotham 2008).
Therefore, since attending lectures, study hours, and extracurricular
participation have a beneficial effect on academic performance (Hanks and
Eckland 1976; Misra and McKean 2000; Arulampalam et al. 2011), and, in turn,
working during higher education is likely to decrease the time devoted to these
activities, it may have a negative effect on academic progression. Thus, the
zero-sum approach predicts that working students will have a slower academic
progression compared to non working students and this disadvantage will persist
even controlling for other characteristics, because of the intrinsic
characteristics of the work experience. Second, according to the ‘negative
selection-to-work’ hypothesis, it is likely to find that nonworking students
have better academic performance and progression than working students.
However, these differences may be related not to the negative effect of
employment per se, but to observed or unobserved pre-existing differences
between the two groups of students, such as social background, ability and
motivation (Warren et al. 2000; Warren 2002). Working students can be
systematically different from nonworking students: for example, they can show a
higher propensity to work because they obtained poor grades in their previous
school stages, or they consider academic success less important than other
students do. Therefore, working students’ poor performance may reflect a
process of academic disengagement that begins before the students enter the
labor market. Therefore, the ‘negative selection-to-work’ approach predicts
that differences in academic progression among nonworking students and working
students will disappear once their pre-existing characteristics are controlled
for. Nevertheless, the ‘negative selection-to-work’ hypothesis has been
elaborated mainly with a reference to student work in high school. The
student-workers’ situation in higher education could be different, since this
educational level is not compulsory. High school leavers who decide to continue
to study at university should know in advance that they will have to manage
both work and learning at higher level and this is relatively more demanding
than working or studying alone. Therefore, they could be on average highly
motivated to pursue university education, perceiving work primarily as an
instrument to finance their studies. Thus, since the working student condition
is demanding, it will negatively affects academic progression; however, the higher
motivation of working students or their ability to cope simultaneously with
work and learning could help them in their academic studies, making their
credits accumulation similar to that of non-working students. At the end,
according to the ‘reconciliation approach’, there is not necessarily a negative
relationship between student employment and academic outcomes, for several
reasons. First of all, the zero-sum hypothesis was elaborated to explain the
relation between employment and school outcomes for high-school students. It
seems less applicable to university students because they often don’t have
compulsory classes, they spend less time in classroom and thus

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