THE located in the name of Cava. Indonesia’s major




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Republic of Indonesia is locataed mainly in Southeast Asia and Oceania, it is
the worlds largest Island Country with 17.508 islands. It has approximately 265
Million population in the year of 2017. And it is 4th of the biggest country in
the World by population. As ethnicity includes hundreds of millions of
different ethnic groups and cultures, diversity is varied. However, more than
half of the population can be classified as belonging to two main ethnic
groups. Those two groups are Javanese (%40,6) and Sundanese (%15) and we can
mention about other etnic groups as Madurese (%3,3),
Minangkabau (%2.7), Betawi (%2,4), Bugis (%2,4) Banten (%2), Banjar (%1,7) and others.
The most striking core of the distribution of the country is very uneven.


The island of Cava is the most populated region of the
population density. Irian Barat is also the region with the least intensity.
Despite the fact that it is 7% of the country’s surface area, the population
density in Cava is 450 square kilometers. The Iranian Barat region, which has
the least intensity, is 1.7 kilometers in kilometers. Cakarta, the capital of
the country, is located in the name of Cava. Indonesia’s major cities are also
here. People usually deal with agriculture. Despite this, there are many large
cities with populations exceeding millions. The main food ingredient of the
people of the country is rice.


Half of the people live in the villages. The lifestyle and
cultural differences between the people living in the coastal regions and the
people living in the inner regions are quite different. The people are famous
for their love of making beautiful houses. What they do is houses climate and
possibilities, more largely based on piles, steep stairs, usually bamboo.
Although the main food items are rice, it is seen that corn and cassava plants
are substitutes for rice in some poor regions. Men and women are dressed in
traditional clothing, called kain or sarong, wrapped in body. Handicrafts,
especially fabrics, are very common in the direction of weaving and processing.
Exotic colors and patterned fabrics called batik are hand crafted products that
are processed the most. We may summarize population and changes since 1967 as



Population growth

2000 and 2017, Indonesia’s annual national population growth rate was 1.28
percent on average. This growth was highest in Papua % 5.43 and lowest in
Central Java % 0,36. Family planning in Indonesia is coordinated by the
National Family Planning Coordination Board (NFPCB), a government agency.
According to President Suharto, effective family planning was initiated in 1968
and his succession continued to daylight. This program is an important strategy
for the economic development of the country since the per capita gross domestic
product (GDP) has been transformed; which means a low population growth rate,
higher incomes, higher savings, higher investments and a drop in poverty rates.
. According to the World Bank, the rate of national population growth in 2015
was 1.2 percent.


Age Structure

important strength of the demographic composition associated with the
Indonesian economy is that the country has a young population. This young
population implies a potentially large work force hence, this workforce has
vital preventive measures that can be trained to gain high skills and are
absorbed through employment opportunities. Indonesia’s median age is 28.3 years
of 2017 estimates. This shows that half of the population is over 28 years old
and the other half is younger. According to the sex, women were compared with
middle age, female elderly 28.1 years and elderly male 29.1 years.





00 – 14




15 – 64




65 – Over





In 2010 around 19 percent of the Indonesian population was
below ten years of age, around 37 percent was below twenty years of age, and
around half of the population was below thirty years of age. Such numbers
indicate that – from a demographic perspective – there is great potential for
both productivity and creativity in Indonesia.

In 2010 around 19 percent of the Indonesian population was
below ten years of age, around 37 percent was below twenty years of age, and
around half of the population was below thirty years of age. Such numbers
indicate that – from a demographic perspective – there is great potential for
both productivity and creativity in Indonesia.



In terms of
religion, the majority of the Indonesian population is Muslim. Approximately
87.2 percent of the total Indonesian population or 207.2 million people in
absolute numbers are Muslims. However, Indonesia is not an Islamic nation (only
Islamic Shari’a law applies to Aceh’s special region at the north end of
Sumatra). But despite this being a secular democracy, the principles of Islamic
doctrine play an important role in Indonesian politics, economy and society. There
are Protestants 16.5 million (%6.9), Catholics 6.9 million (%2.9) and Hindus 4
million (%1.7). Finally, there are Buddhist minorities as well as people who
practice Confucianism, a member of ethnic Chinese society.


Geographical Structure


of the greatest islands in Indonesia are Sumatra, Borneo, Cava, Selebes and New
Guinea. The western part of New Guinea Island, which is based in Indonesia, is
called Irian Barat. The part of Borneo Island that belongs to Indonesia is
called Kalimantan. Sumatra, Borneo, Cava and Selebes are the Great Sunda
Islands; Bali, Lombok, Sumba, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor and so on. Medium sized
island like Small Sonde Islands; Buru, Ceram, Halmehera and so on. Island is
given name Moluk Islands. There are various inner seas between the islands. The
total surface area of Indonesia’s land parts, which is about 5,000,000 km²
along with the inner seas, is 1,919,443 km2. The inner seas are Cava, Sunda,
Banda, Flores, Selebes and Moluk. The important features of the sea and straits
that separate the islands from each other are deep.

capital city Jakarta is dominated by volcanic islands as a result of
Indonesia’s general structure. There are about 150 volcanoes in the most
extinct state. The country is on the Ecuadorian line. Sumatra, which is a large
island, is located in the west of the country and is separated from the Malacca
Straits by the Asian continent, in the north west, in the south east direction,
and in the south east by the Bottom of the Sonda and Cava Island. An extension
of the mountain ranges in Burmese continues on the western shores of Sumatra
Island. These mountain ranges are extinguished and many volcans still active
are involved. In the north of this mountain range with altitudes exceeding 3000
m, there are large and fertile valleys and large lakes. The eastern parts of
the island are plain and flat plains. The swamps take up considerable space on
the eastern shores. Great rivers. Cava Island is located in the west-east direction
between Sumatra and Bali Island, the westernmost island of the Small Sequence
islands. About 1000 km in length and 200 km in width, this island is parallel
to the equator. These mountain ranges are closer to the south, and there are
numerous volcanoes, some of which are still burning. Although the north of the
island is flat oval, the southern coast is high. The sea in the south is not
too rocky. This allows the ships to easily approach the south coast of the
island. This is why the harbors are relatively large in the south to the north
coast. The Small Sonde Islands, a medium-sized island community located to the
east of the Cava Island, do not have very different structures from the other
Sumatra and Cava Islands by their physical structure. All of the islands
bringing the community to the fountain are volcanic and the coasts are flat.
The western parts of New Guinea called Irian Barat do not change much as the
physical structure of Indonesia. The Bradjamusti Range is located in the middle
east of the region.

the north of the area where the southern part is covered with fertile plains,
the mountain ranges below the middle part are parallel. These two mountain
ranges are separated by the plains between them. The bait, swallowed by many
rivers descending from both mountains, is quite productive. Located at
Bradjamusti Mountain Menzili in the middle of this region in the western part
of New Guinea Island, Carstenz Hill is 5050 m. Ile is the highest point of the
country. The island of Molok, consisting of many islands and islands situated
between the New Guinea and Selebes islands, is also mountainous.

is a good shelter for the ships in some places where the coasts are very indented
and where the island cannot reach the same rocky island. Selebes Island has an
octopus view in the center of the island, which opens in four different
directions to the mountains. It is deep and very wide between the four halves.
The highest point of the mountains is Latimodjang Tepes with 3840 m. There are
very small islands in the name of Selebes. Borneo is the largest of the
islands, bringing Indonesia to the fore. This island is politically composed of
three parts. Malaysia, North and North regions and Indonesia, and these regions
will deal with this region. To the southwest, in the northeast-east direction,
the mountains extend to parts of Indonesia, to the border of Malaysia. The
remaining large parts are flat ovens and the coastal areas are boggy. Many gulf
suburbs cannot be compared to appropriate clothes.

rivers are located in the great islands of the country. The Sumatra Rivers are
Musi, Kampar, Rokar and Hari. The most important flow of the Iranian Barat
region is the Mamberamo River, which flows through the mountains in the middle
of the island and flows towards the Great Ocean in the north. The most
important rivers in the Kalimantan region of Borneo Island, part of Indonesia
are the Kayan, Mahakam, Barito and Kapuas rivers. The most important lakes of
the country are Toba Lake in the north of Sumatra Island, Towuti and Poso Lakes
in Selebes Island, Semajang and Djempang Lakes in Kalimantan region.


Natural Resources


is a country with abundant natural resources that the Netherlands does not want
to give up as a colony at all costs. Due to its climate, lush, tropical forests
bring the country’s vegetation to the square. There are rich and varied plants
in the country. In coastal areas where there are many bogs, marsh plants and
mangroves are the dominant vegetation cover. In Sumatra, where mountain slopes
are covered with lush forests, rubber forests are also found in some areas. In
the small Sonde Islands woods covered with trees preferred by wood are more
common. There are forests of up to 2500 m high brought to the country by
equator plants. Selebes Selebes in the plains of fields with large-leaved
plants dominate, elevated to the height of the production of wooden furniture
is very precious ebony and single trees are widespread. As swamps concentrate
on the shores of Borneo Island, swampy plants are dominant in these regions.
Here, the woods inside contain valuable tropical trees. Bamboo is the most
abundant tree on all sides of the country. Forests are sparse in areas where
palm trees, banana trees, Indian cherry trees and citrus trees are common, and
where rainfall is high or low, and are left to violence, tic, casein and
eucalyptus trees.

variety of animals is very full. Bird variety in the world is famous for its
abundance. Tropical forests, tigers, leopards, large orangutans, monkeys, every
big snakes, reptiles, marsh, crocodiles and animals all over the country.
Sumatra and Kalimantan are found in India, while Sumatra and Java are abundant
in rhinos.


looks like there’s a lot of underground wealth. There are plenty of variety and
mines. Tin, oil, natural gas, coal, bauxite, manganese, gold and silver
deposits have an important place among the world reserves. In addition, nickel,
copper, iodine and salt are among the rich underground mines.




has a presidential system based on the presidential system. Parliament, the
460-member National Assembly is remarkable. Until 1967, Achmed Soekarno governs
the country under his presidency and then becomes Soeharto president. The
country has been administratively divided into 21 regions.

Golkar party, which dominated the country for many years in the 1999 elections
and was in power by itself, reduced the vote rate from 74.51% to 22.46%. Later,
after the constitutional reforms between 1999 and 2002, the regime underwent
drastic changes. Among them, the president and vice-president, who will serve
no more than twice in five years, were directly elected by the public.
According to the Constitution, the Peoples’ Advisory Council, which is at the
highest level, was put down to the level of other institutions affiliated to
the Constitution and elected president.

the first time in 2004, he was elected by the president and his deputy and was
elected president of the Democratic Party’s Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in 2004
and 2009.

Widodo, Jakarta governor, who was represented by the Indonesian Democratic
Struggle Party and supported by parliamentary minorities on 20 October 2014,
was elected president with 53.15%. For this reason, the task of Susilo Bambang
Yudhoyono, who had been relatively reluctant for 10 years, ended. However, the
parties supporting Widodo constituted only 40.88 percent of the vote in the
April 9, 2014 elections, held six months ago.




agriculture in the economy still has a strong weight. But since independence,
there has been significant progress in industry, commerce and trade, and these
progresses are continuing. Only 7.5% of the soil can be planted. It is possible
to obtain crops twice a year in unbearable ways. Forest products are among the
exporting countries. The most grown agricultural product in the country is
rice. Although the rice plant grows much, the country can not even meet the
needs of the country because it is the basic food material. The majority of
arable beings are in the Cava, Bali and Sumatra islands. This is the most
effective factor in population distribution. Tea, spices, tobacco, corn,
peanuts, sugarcane, cassava, potatoes, coffee, soybeans are important products.

fact that two thirds of the country is forested increases the contribution of
the economy forest products. In forest products, it ranks second among the
countries of the world. Timber derived from ebony and Indian trees, rubber
forests, henna obtained from tree bark, is a forest product which is a great
contribution to the country’s economy. Indonesia accounts for 90% of the
world’s needs. The forests are under state control. Due to the increasing world
economy, Indonesia has increased its commercial and industrial relations with
foreign countries and started exporting over $ 100 billion a year. The most
important factor of this is the fact that the East Asian economies that have
developed an extraordinary development process are in the country. Relations
with China and Japan give the Indonesian economy a great boost. Although the operation
of mines is more beneficial for the country than the colonial modern giant, the
economy still depends on foreigners and needs foreign investments. Petroleum
production, which is 50 million tons per year, is obtained by evaluating the
petroleum reserves of the country very little. The development of petroleum
refineries increases the daily production of oil. The oil is most likely
obtained from the Sumatra and Kalimantan regions. Half of the exports are oil.
After oil and natural gas production, the country ranks third among the world
states in the production of tin, the second order in mining production.
However, the industry has begun to establish itself once it has achieved
independence. Petroleum refineries, iron and steel industry, lacquer, cement,
paper, k?nin, fertilizer, weaving factories are increasing day by day. Salt
production is the state monopoly and the level that meets the needs of the
country. The harbors are suitable for the development of ships of every
tonnage, and despite the fact that the shipyards are developing day by day, the
shipyards are insufficient. The most common problem in the country is
electricity shortage. However, important work has been done in this area in
recent years. Machinery, electronics, weaving and chemical industry are in
development stage.


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