The There will no longer be legal differences between

The final crisis of the struggle occurred with the Lex Ogulnia in 300 B.C., which allowed the plebeians to exercise religious powers, and with the Lex Hortensia in 287 B.C., that gave equal weight to the legislation, was promulgated by the Senate or by the assembly of the plebs. There will no longer be legal differences between the two orders and the social domain of a patrician-plebeian nobilitas will be consolidated.Some authors see an influence of Greek democracy. To celebrate the pacification between patricians and plebeians after the approval of the Licinia laws in 367 B.C., the Senate ordered the circular remodeling of the Temple of Concord, as in the Greek assemblies. Gnaeus Flavius, son of a freedman and aedile, promulgated the Ius Flavianum that gave new procedures of law and abolished the patriotic monopoly.The advances in favor of the plebs were slow but constant. Some consuls were replaced by military tribunes with consular power. The unpopular prohibition of the connubium of Table XI was abolished in 445 B.C. by Lex Canuleia, thus allowing mixed marriages. The nexum is abolished by the Lex Poetelia Papiria in 326 B.C. In 367 B.C., the children of freed slaves can accede to the Senate and the humiliores and freedmen can register in the rural tribes. This is going to revolutionize the political functioning of Rome and, although it is annulled by the patricians in 304 B.C., it is fixed to the electorate by its place of residence and not by the clientelism and the ethnic origin, already lost from many years before.As Morey states. “But what was quite as important, the assembly of the plebeians (concilium plebis) was now given power to make laws binding upon the whole people. It is supposed that this assembly had by this time been reorganized and based upon the tribal districts so as to include the patricians as well as the plebeians. This newly organized assembly came to be known as the comitia tributa, and we shall see it grow in influence and dignity, until it becomes the most important assembly of the republic.” (para. 8)In response to the severe application of the laws on the debt by the consul Appius Claudius Sabinus Regillensis, the plebeians left Rome in 494 B.C. to settle on the Monte Sacro and refused to provide military service; it was the first secessio plebis. They created a parallel state, choosing their own assemblies: the Concilium Plebis, and their own representatives: two tribunes of the plebs. The response of the patricians, delayed as much as possible, was the promulgation of the Law of the XII Tables (450 BC), written by decemvirs, a set of written and published laws, whose mere existence was a limit to the abuses of the patricians. However, by their content, these tables were called unfair because they maintained the prohibition of contracting mixed marriages between patricians and plebeians, formalized the distinction between the two classes and maintained the nexum.According to Morey (1901), “The law of debt was not only harsh in itself, but its effect was to keep the poor in a continual state of poverty, from which they could not easily escape.” (para. 4)According to the traditional story of Livy, Ab Urbe condita libri, since the deposition of the last king, Tarquinio el Soberbio, in the year 509 B.C., the patrician families arrogated themselves the power to limit the members of their order to the government of the city, monopolizing the access to the Senate and the sacerdotal school. The inability of the plebeians to access the magistrates contrasted with their full military obligations, which ruined the families of small owners because of the continual mobilizations for war, which prevented them from maintaining their agricultural holdings and made them into debt. Given the difficulties of the plebs, the patricians unrestrictedly used the nexum, submitting in fact to their clients, who will be increasingly dependent.The Patrician and Plebeian conflict was a historical denomination of the social and political struggle waged between the patricians and the plebeians of Ancient Rome. The conflict arose from the desire of the plebeians to achieve political equality. It began with the Secessio plebis of 494 B.C, and culminated in 287 B.C. with the Lex Hortensia, after two centuries of confrontations that dominated the political life of the beginnings of the early Roman Republic.


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